Democracy is a government system whereby, all the people are eligible state members.

Democracy is a government system whereby, all the people are eligible state members.

Abraham Lincoln, the famous US President, while giving his idealist point of view, described democracy as a ‘‘government of the people, by the people, for the people’’. Other systems of government include among others the theocratic and dictatorial governments. Iranian republic, which is a Muslim state, is a good example of a theocratic country. Winston Churchill was a great freedom defender and wartime leader in America and played crucial roles in shaping people’s understanding of statesmanship and democracy.professional essay writers During his lifetime he is remembered for his powerful speeches on democracy and the vital role he played in defeat of Adolf Hitler, the famous German dictator. One of his most renowned quote says ‘‘democracy is the worst form of government except all those other forms that have been tried from time to time.’’ It therefore emerges, as we shall see from this discussion that modern democracy is associated with its challenges and may always comprise the worst government ever.

Which are the bad parts of modern democracy? Just as Winston Churchill noted, a democratic of government can pose serious challenges to some members within the population. It is worth noting that a democratic government derives its powers from a popular vote . In many occasions this has the effect of the majority trampling on the minority’s rights. It is therefore very difficult for the minority to have a way or say in the government.

Another problem associated with modern democracy is that it can be so inefficient and may derail development. If the interests of the majority have been met and satisfied, it is difficult for them to listen to the grievances and suggestions presented to them by the minority group, regardless of how good they are. Since the people’s representatives are the politicians, there is less accountability and responsibility in leadership and in usage of public funds. This will promote corruption and therefore no meaningful development will be achieved.

There is always an inequality in communication as well as delays in reaching to an agreement. The rich and more influential people who are usually the politicians have a quick and easy access to the media and communication tools. Therefore, it is hard for the poor and the weak to be heard in matters of national interests because politicians will always tend to fulfil their personal preferences primary.

Issues in line with E-commerce have been continuing for almost three hundred years.

Issues in line with E-commerce have been continuing for almost three hundred years.

It holds the view that exponential population development might overwhelm changes in agricultural production. Adam Smith also believes that, economic development in individuals’ socioeconomic circumstances might decrease richness rates after some time. Monetary history has been a continuous fight between the strengths of Adam Smith and Thomas Malthus (Cook, 2012).essay websites It is believed that rate of population development would outpace the development of assets prompting a fate of mass destitution. Previously, the future was predicted that, the business instrument might give the various methods. It is whereby singular exertion and virtuoso might make aggregate profits sufficient. These will help balance any assets demands (Hollander, 2012).

Discussion There is a prima facie case supporting E-commerce affirmations. It is the richness rate of a large number of the world’s most created economies. However, United States is not amongst the countries listed in the corporation. It is due inexpensive part to the effects of movement has tumbled in the course of the most recent forty years. That decay has reflected a time of huge financial development. It also reflects the rising living gauges in these nations (Copley, 2010). The ‘Time of increased birth rates’ has turned into the ‘Infant bust.’ It is supported with extremely huge suggestions for influenced topographies. It should be noted that, demographic blend reverses. However, there are some laborers ready to convey the social expense of the rising number of elderly in the population (Copley, 2010).

The total worldwide population is still developing. The rate of development has not decreased since the mid-sixties. There is an assorted quality of research which demonstrates that richness rate has an opposite association. The association involves elements such as instructive level and pay level. If the RI study is to be convenient in directing strategy creators, then it needs to convey some complete research. It is where calculates do sway ripeness rates (Cook, 2012).

The developing worldwide population is obliged to manage the required levels of financial development. The contention is advanced. It suggests that, the continued development in line with the production of the manufactured goods merchandise will oblige and increase workforce. It will help make them produce goods in regards to the effect of innovation on financial development. It means that, even an expanding supply of made products will require few manufacturers. However, it may need a big number of manufacturers in a short while (Copley, 2010).

The number of known workers that are always employed in building autos is small. It is because of the most developed and computerized industrial facilities. The situation in the mean time has the recent developments which took place in the previous thirty years. The continued developments in mechanical autonomy, methodology control engineering and data frameworks, have fostered such changes. There is hope that, Fifty years from now, many industries will ingest crude materials. It means that, it is only a small amount of persons in the business (Copley, 2010).

Artificial intelligence: can it ever take a place of the human mind

Artificial intelligence: can it ever take a place of the human mind

Artificial intelligence remains one of the most critical developments in the modern dispensation. Simply put, artificial intelligence is the process where human like structures and components are developed to perform functions that could otherwise be done by individuals. A number of people have argued that in the near future artificial intelligence could soon take the place of human beings in different spheres of life (Akerkar, 2005).blog The debate has elicited mixed reactions with some claiming the move to develop human like structures is a ploy to reduce the impact of human beings in the biosphere. Artificial intelligence can replace the human mind, but only to some extent.

Technological transformations in the modern dispensation cannot be over emphasized. Artificial intelligence remains at the core of the technological transformations being experienced in the modern times. Simulation of the human mind is critical to the success of artificial intelligence (Akerkar, 2005). It is critical to note that though the machines are made by man, the various instruments can easily take the place humans in terms of performance of certain tasks. There are computers that are being developed with the components that make it possible for human reasoning to be achieved.

The BMW company based in the United Kingdom has developed an application that can take field questions about yet to be established electric car (Burn-Callander, 2013). The artificial intelligence application adopted by the BMW company performs to the ability of human standards (Burn-Callander, 2013). Another example of artificial intelligence application being employed in human life by sales and marketing people (Akerkar, 2005). Call centres have tailor made machines that can respond to customer needs as appropriate and meet the expectations of the people as required (Akerkar, 2005).

The impact that artificial intelligence continues to have in the modern dispensation cannot be rubbished wholesale. However, it is critical to note that human beings are still superior to the machines being developed to perform certain functions. Case in point is that human beings have a superior brain that computers and various applications. Machines and computers can only perform to the extent to which they are developed with specific commands and controls being attached to them (Nath, 2009). Beyond the controls and commands, artificial intelligence materials cannot offer a diverse solutions and feedback that require critical thinking and decision making.

Consequently, artificial intelligence can only apply in certain spheres of life. Designing and structuring the human brain may be a tall order for scientists and technologist. The flow of the human thoughts on developing artificial intelligence may be the only component achieved (Nath, 2009). The negative effects of artificial intelligence, such as loss of jobs may hinder the development of machines to have the human mind a factor that probably are not easy to produce.

Issues in line with E-commerce have been continuing for almost three hundred years.

Issues in line with E-commerce have been continuing for almost three hundred years.

It holds the view that exponential population development might overwhelm changes in agricultural production. Adam Smith also believes that, economic development in individuals’ socioeconomic circumstances might decrease richness rates after some time. Monetary history has been a continuous fight between the strengths of Adam Smith and Thomas Malthus (Cook, 2012).online assignment writing It is believed that rate of population development would outpace the development of assets prompting a fate of mass destitution. Previously, the future was predicted that, the business instrument might give the various methods. It is whereby singular exertion and virtuoso might make aggregate profits sufficient. These will help balance any assets demands (Hollander, 2012).

Discussion There is a prima facie case supporting E-commerce affirmations. It is the richness rate of a large number of the world’s most created economies. However, United States is not amongst the countries listed in the corporation. It is due inexpensive part to the effects of movement has tumbled in the course of the most recent forty years. That decay has reflected a time of huge financial development. It also reflects the rising living gauges in these nations (Copley, 2010). The ‘Time of increased birth rates’ has turned into the ‘Infant bust.’ It is supported with extremely huge suggestions for influenced topographies. It should be noted that, demographic blend reverses. However, there are some laborers ready to convey the social expense of the rising number of elderly in the population (Copley, 2010).

The total worldwide population is still developing. The rate of development has not decreased since the mid-sixties. There is an assorted quality of research which demonstrates that richness rate has an opposite association. The association involves elements such as instructive level and pay level. If the RI study is to be convenient in directing strategy creators, then it needs to convey some complete research. It is where calculates do sway ripeness rates (Cook, 2012).

The developing worldwide population is obliged to manage the required levels of financial development. The contention is advanced. It suggests that, the continued development in line with the production of the manufactured goods merchandise will oblige and increase workforce. It will help make them produce goods in regards to the effect of innovation on financial development. It means that, even an expanding supply of made products will require few manufacturers. However, it may need a big number of manufacturers in a short while (Copley, 2010).

The number of known workers that are always employed in building autos is small. It is because of the most developed and computerized industrial facilities. The situation in the mean time has the recent developments which took place in the previous thirty years. The continued developments in mechanical autonomy, methodology control engineering and data frameworks, have fostered such changes. There is hope that, Fifty years from now, many industries will ingest crude materials. It means that, it is only only a few persons in the industry (Copley, 2010).

Health is the most crucial element in today’s life.Health care is becoming more and more important as there are a lots of diseases around us.Until and unless a person is healthy,he cannot be happy no matter how wealthy he is, that is why it is said “health is wealth”.

Health is the most crucial element in today’s life.Health care is becoming more and more important as there are a lots of diseases around us.Until and unless a person is healthy,he cannot be happy no matter how wealthy he is, that is why it is said “health is wealth”.

Management of Health care Managing health care is becoming a necessity.As there are a large no. of hospitals,medicines,patients,diseases their management becomes must.Providing right type of services to the customers or can say patient is very important.Health care management is the field relating to leadership,management and administration of public health system,health care system,hospitals and hospitals network .Health care management professionals improve patient care by overseeing healthcare services delivery advancing sound health care policies and improving the business flow and organization of health care providers.Skilled health care management professionals also contribute to the viability of the industry as a whole by ensuring compliance with regulations and legislation as well as following best practices for modern health care organisations.essay writing services cheap

As health care is becoming more and more complex, it will face many challenges in future.Diversity and changes in tastes and preferences of people regarding their clinic and doctors is making health care management a more complex issue.Forecasting the future of health care and health policy is an imperfect science.Among the predictions made in the mid 1980s were that there would be a phsycians surplus,a growing number of elderly people an increase in the number of people in managed careplans , restructured health benefits, new technologies more for profit health care delivery,rising health care costs and a restrained federal government role.

The following are the main challenges that will be faced by health care management in future: 1.Rising health care costs It was predicted in 1986 that health care spending would reach 14% of the nation’s gross domestic product(GDP) by 2000.In 1990’s, it was thought that managed care and government limits on overall spending would restrain rising costs.

Although managed care did restrain cost growth for a few years ,the recent performance of individual health plans suggests that this will not be a major vehicle for future cost containment .The biggest challenge is the continued failure if decision makers to reach a consensus on how to address the major health care problems facing the country.

2.The tiering of health care Historically disparities in access to health care and health outcomes were seen between insured and uninsured people.However,the new approach to cost containment , which asks individual to pay more for their own health care is going to lead to tiering in which those with higher incomes will be able to afford a wider range of health care services than much of the middle class and those with lower incomes.

Middle class people faces more problems that are related to cost than people with higher income ,thus it creates a huge challenge for health care management in future.

3.Growing number of elderly people Death rates are steadily decreasing while life expectancy has been increasing.These trends would suggest a rapid increase in funding for long term care and development of alternatives to nursing homes. Individuals with higher incomes and private long term care insurance coverage will have a wide variety of options available to them.

4.New technologies In the mid 1980’s organ transplants were expensive, new technology and the financing of these procedures is still difficult. But there are many new and expensive technologies on the horizon, drugs in particular that are likely to be only public’s interest in new technologies and efforts by government and employers to restrict coverage in an attempt to manipulate expenditures.

Will Man-made Cleverness go beyond a persons mind

Will Man-made Cleverness go beyond a persons mind

There will be specific perspectives and varieties of studying when it comes to pcs increasingly intelligent as opposed to the persons. Given that this is correct, it is always gauged on various paradigms. For instance, some specialists believe

a unit is going to able when it moves the Turing check out safely and effectively as our. Other people, but bear in mind, check quite high-phase cleverness in portable computers to completing medical operate.reflective essay on your writing skills Extra, consultants in other areas of artificial intelligence consider that whenever a unit can successfully pass an exam that a senior high school learner would resolve this affirms that it must be tremendous wise. And finally, other types firmly believe that devices can merely be named being intelligent whether it can accomplish way over just what Superman has ever previously attained. Even though these a variety of degrees of way of measuring, the cornerstone of superb platforms like R2D2 coming into put. Thin man-made knowledge has used a unique position in video recording gambling, finding devices and lots of the investing solutions constantly in place at the moment. Other milestones in the field of unnatural intelligence that probes a ton of

accomplishments in the future have the presence of driverless pickups. Also in depth water scuba diving by robots and employ of robots in damaging parts that put at risk a persons lifetime (Callan, 2003). A good deal has also been designed in habit complementing specially in material investigation, showing of data instantly, by using pcs to assemble rules plus the business world. In spite of several of these triumphs, some reservists completely hold that man made learning ability can never get the host to a persons intellect. They reason that bright pcs are unable to pleasantly clear up common sense trouble that any youngster can. Challenges have inhibited research workers in man-made knowledge completely to another level. Inspite of these difficulties, there has been a significant enchancment to outsmart them producing house and opportunity for synthetic knowledge to enjoy a lot better than a persons cleverness. The recent good results in bit

range making to 3D layering and much better specifications, enhancement and great numbers of memory space surgical procedure makes a more advanced than really potential for the takeoff of synthetic intelligence (Margulies, 2004).The resultant is much better personal computer efficiency plus unique and construction in the market. To give an example Europe’s Glowing blue Mind design on IBM’s Violet Mental performance personal computer and IBM’s Watson plan. This makes a projection of things that has been perceived getting into space if the two are linked. The lastest theories on technical singularity suggest the introduction of

your personal computer that may possibly reprogram itself as well as in so achieving achieves self-improvement. This sort of personal pc is not only a threat to human being society but for the overall humankind race in its entirety. Some research workers reason that desktops are only termed as unique when they can mimic all capacities of individual emotions and thoughts. In acquiring this, it implies that desktops are provided with a imagination of their own. Because these emotional behavior are what types the basis for individuals to subtract by reasoning, these machines will share the same volume. The arrival with this will quickly realize a working computer that could be creative then one who’s imagining skill to mimic human behaviours is unbeatable. Wise personal pc solutions can design imperative intel beyond amazing chunks of data with surprisingly understated distinctions. As an example, IBM’s supercomputer uses wellbeing files to settle health and health-related difficulties. It is able to transaction plausible grounds for care attach an evidence levels for any and provide proof for obtaining on that advice (Berlatsky, 2011).Portable computers do stuff men and women have very difficult to do, but have not even

Home business Expansion Course of action as a new Place The entire process of developing an online business into a further region consists of building an appropriate legal entity, tax concurrence, advantageous personnel, conforming to localised requirements and handling a multitude of service providers within your nation. On top of that, the prospects of disaster continue being typical, and a few of the problems attached contain taking advantage of substantial sums of money and exposing this company to substance danger.custom writing essay Thus, it is recommended per online marketer to evaluate inside the most suitable solutions to make sure market achieving success in an alternative location. This cardstock exemplifies within the business enlargement routine which is often useful to business people desiring to extend their organizations and businesses into one more region. Get ready the Company inside The first step includes generating a clear out enterprize model. Seemingly, a worker out of your fundamental office needs to be capable of vacation to an alternative business office and familiar with her or his assignments lacking adjusting the job typical (Cavusgil, 2009). Accordingly, without this, there would certainly be prolonged discord together with the mind business and wish to examine frequently on any motions it determines to begin. (Cavusgil, 2009) affirms that firms that adjust processes endlessly devoid of the authorization using the scalp office environment formulate continuing disputes as soon as they enlarge. The second thing is, you will find ought to be sure that your decision doing business task is undamaged where there is simply one particular person in charge of setting up judgements to the new organisation. Thirdly, there does exist will have to set up a constant examination method that is relevant to every office spaces making use of mind business office experiencing the mandate to ensure helpful moves to confirm standardization within the examination operation (Cavusgil, 2009). The next stage in the business expansion routine is deciding on a favourable area since a choice of store greatly influences the chances of victory in an alternative region. An businessperson will have to transfer to a spot which includes a greater requirement for the support delivered by her / his organization. In line with (Jansson, 2008) it is preferable to the business owner to decide a location where he has superior practical experience and larger contacts for the people of the new state. A portion of the unsuccessful firm expansions are attributable to improper options of places by which they did not have superior clients while using clients on the new nation, thereby which makes difficult to prosper within a new countryside. Hence, choosing the best locale is one of sizeable stride for the triumphant industry development in a new region. Heat up this marketplace This method quite often requires creating performing associates in a new country in association up to the top of your head clinic to ensure the director of these new group has reliable and engaging romances well before making your way to the new country. Establishing preferred relationships contained in the new area is essential beforehand setting up an state and is particularly wise for a businessman and avoid hoping to conquer the place prior to being acquitted with industry associations in a new state.

All About How to Write Essay

All About How to Write Essay

The How to Write Essay Cover Up

A strategy to start is by using another essay for a template. An informative article has details and all those details must be discussed. It’s a range of thoughts and thoughts. The clean screen or http://samedayessay.com paper before you while creating informative article has come to be the practice’s very challenging subject. A argumentative essay explains the medial side of the author is the optimal/optimally side, and provides the advantages and disadvantages of the problem.

Because of this reason, lots of people find it challenging to compose this kind of essay. My essay is due in one hour and I don’t have some clue where to get started. Auto-biography essays aren’t predicated on some other personalities. Like in a written essay, you’ll need to select what you wish to describe or argue. By abiding By these 3 steps it’s simple to generate an premium excellent essay, and enhance your research and composition writing abilities.

Top How to Write Essay Secrets

In case the paragraph doesn’t help encourage your thesis in certain manner, it has to be deleted. Each paragraph is going to get topic sentence which is to believe the thesis. It is composed.

Details of How to Write Essay

Plenty of students have need of some service at the place where they could buy such write ups and they are searching the web daily to meet their desire of achieving academic evaluation that is great. Usually they try to prevent essay writing inside their normal study course. Whilst the student, additionally, it is very simple to get sidetracked.

How to Write Essay Ideas

Figuring out how to compose a issue can be hard. My question proved to be quite a straightforward one. The question could be part of your introduction, or it may make a title. It must be targeted to the question to reach the marks. If you’re doing beyond paper questions, consider the mark plot to learn exactly what you might have missed. Your solution should tackle every one of your kid’s areas of interest and strength.

You key in the subject and a great deal of quotes appear together with a picture. You need to know this problem and study in regards to the subject. You then are able to select a subject from any drama or publication you might have read during the class of the class. Whilst the subject of the essay demands investigation it’s used. The article topics are categorized into classes solely.

The most significant part would be to how to write a descriptive essay about a person settle on an interest. It could be hard to say if it’s the topic is easy or hard to write on. There are lots of topics where you are able to attempt your writing abilities.

The Basic Principles of How to Write Essay That You Can Benefit From Starting Today

If you get an interest that you’re new to then select on a topic that ignites an attention. That you don’t need to argue for or against this dilemma you’re writing on. For writing process essays most of the themes utilized are correlated with academics.

AN Analysis From The Fiscal Factors Analyzing THE SUCCESS OF BUSINESS

AN Analysis From The Fiscal Factors Analyzing THE SUCCESS OF BUSINESS

The monetary problem in organization is to research the behavior of specific companies as retailers and consumers in micro business economics and aggregate national profits or absolute nation earnings in macro economics research. I wish to establish that evaluating merchants by opening primarily in having the simple and easy variables (small-economics) and heading to structure more advanced sector surroundings (macro-economics) is just as authentic as climbing up a tree because of the soil on the trunk area rather then inside the makes at the very top.online free essay writer Concept of managerial economics: Managerial business economics, made use of synonymously with venture economics, is a part of economics that handles the use of microeconomic exploration to judgement-delivering means of corporations and relief systems.

As indicated by literature in economics by (Barro, 1993, glossary, p. 594), the definition of mini foundations reference the microeconomic research into the practices of personalized substances like for example families or firms that underpins a macroeconomic hypothesis and behavior of agents in operation.

Also material in literature by (G. Chris Rodrigo “Micro and macro: the economic separate,” kept up to date: March 28, 2012, “Coexistence and Complementarity,” Para. 10) claims that, “Microeconomics will be based upon forms of end users or companies (which economists refer to as substances) that can make moves what to obtain, sell, or turn out-by using the assumption that individuals conclusions contribute to amazing marketplace eradicating (high demand equals produce) as well as fantastic disorders. Macroeconomics, alternatively, set about from practiced divergences from what could have been expected positive effects with the traditional convention. At this time the 2 professions coexist and match each other.” This causes equilibrium anywhere between small and macro economics and unites business economics into what it is; single field. Small and macro-market operation evaluation unites economics as the field to be certain of a powerful technique to proper positioning of business for inescapable achievement. A strong argument has blossomed linking (Purists) who imagine and backup Micro and macro-global financial firm research and its specific constancy for a practical romantic relationship in starting off by studying small parameters of this venture and also the (Pragmatists’ ) unfounded, lame, not possible and frail retaliations onto the facts uniting business economics given it was created by its founding fathers of monetary research, who is unable to establish how mini items at man or woman and organization volume of market is definitely based on aggregate or absolute market variables.The Small and macro-fiscal corporation study makes sure that macro economics specifics are inside repeated after only macro business economics as well because they build macro values develop previously demonstrated mini fiscal operation basics and specifics that are previously inside regular inside their studies and

so usually do not ask for any restructuring or transforming by a proposed macro-built talk to that has been encouraged out of your concerns of misdirected “Pragmatists” or another investigation, proposition, product or way of thinking. The disparities come in the foundations and inner regularity of variables for your foundations. We ” purists” can turn out in utilizing qualitative and quantitative study with all the sincerity and constancy of small global financial foundations throughout micro economics itself in addition to that macro business economics parameters and foundations are vital and persistent around ourselves as well as how small global financial foundations can not be formed, deciphered or derived neither dependant upon the macro values, factors, models and theories which has been produced as the result of micro analysis.It will be quality to make note of that your Micro and macro-global financial home business study is certainly not put into small and macro studies but is actually one with regards to unity. The macro model often is the youngster of micro exploration and then the assessment is regular with business economics as it were actually per se created by its founding fathers of business economics.

Silicon: Its Chemical substance Homes and Function in Construction and Building

Silicon: Its Chemical substance Homes and Function in Construction and Building

Silicon (Si) is probably the materials in Staff IV within the Periodic Stand; famously typically called the Carbon dioxide Friends and family. With regards to electro-positivity, this is basically the 2nd most ample aspect immediately following fresh air (O2). Also, it is most likely the materials that show metallic and low-metallic characteristics, consequently a metalloid. Most rocks and mineral deposits have silicon substances with them.original source Several of these come with yellow sand, clay-based, mica, tourmaline, opal, quartz, and flint. All the same, it by no means appears alone to provide a without charge part, but as a general tetravalent substance. Typically, it is really an isotope of 92.2% Si-28, 4.7% Si-29, and 3.1Per cent Si-30 (Thomas, 2002). Nothing like fellow members about this spouse and kids, silicon can be described as semiconductor of electrical power; a characteristic this is superior by introducing impurities. Simply because it styles covalent substance with tetra-favorable ions that have been crucial in the investment of bad ions that is conductors of electric energy. This aspect was located inside of 19th century by Jons Berzelius Jakob (a Swedish chemist). Consequently, this has been used in generating power and computing devices machines (Lekishvili And Zaikov, 2008).

Main superb element of Si is its metal and no-metal house. It easily donates or conveys its three no charge electrons to participate in the development of chemical substance bonding to many other components. Like Carbon dioxide, Si has 5 delocalized and wireless electrons in its outer casing that assist in the formation of covalent ties (Zhang, 2001). It is different from other members of the family on a lawn that is not only donates but will take different electrons, hence creating a five bonded compound of labile silicate dynamics. A good example of finished substance can be the tetra-valent silicon, which is certainly inert in chemical like reactivity. Alternatively, this compound reasonably responds with halogens and dilutes alkalis in order to create more intricate and bonded constructions (Zhang, 2001). Real Si not ever reacts with many bases and acids other than hyper-reactive and concentrated suggestions of hydrofluoric and nitric acids.

Silicon is truly a invaluable component which includes a lot electronic, commercial, and business programs. Organic and natural Si is an important resource for developing and build products due to the fact silicate minerals handle about 90Percent of these earth’s work surface. It is composed of silicon and the necessary oxygen that may have parts of metallic ions, consequently ideal for engineering activities (Lekishvili And Zaikov, 2008). Within silicate items used for building up and framework are silica sand, clays, and quartz gemstones. By some conditions, it is really utilised as as well silicate or silicon dioxide. Most importantly, this factor plays a significant factor through the production of Portland cements. Calcium supplement silicate (a ingredient of Si) can be described as point of unprocessed items utilized in manufacturing concrete, structure mortars, and stucco raw materials. As a result, it integrates with silicate yellow sand, quartz, and pea gravel to develop contrite foundations (Amato And Bardeleben, 1997).